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Understanding Bipolar Disorder

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understanding bipolar disorder,bipolar disorder encompasses a wide,spectrum of symptoms and is classified,according to the types of mood episodes,exhibited including manic hypomanic,major depressive and mixed episodes,bipolar one disorder involves a manic or,mixed episode in contrast to bipolar two,disorder which involves at least one,major depressive episode and at least,one hypomanic episode but no full manic,or mixed episodes bipolar disorder,should be differentiated from major,depressive disorder or MDD which is,diagnosed when a patient experiences one,or more major depressive episodes,without any lifetime episodes of,hypomania or mania depicted here is a,life chart or mood chart which follows,the patient’s lifetime history of mood,episodes this permits the identification,of mood episodes that are the most,prevalent and important to prevent in,this patient as with many patients with,bipolar disorder,depressive episodes become the more,prominent aspect of the illness as the,person ages several morphometric,differences have been observed in the,brains of bipolar disorder patients,relative to healthy subjects white,matter hyperintensity x’ and reduction,in gray matter volume identified with,MRI have been described in patients with,BPD,increased ventricular size and decreased,frontal cortical area volumes may also,be observed in BPD patients,the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder,encompasses environmental behavioral,neuronal cellular and molecular levels,at the molecular level aberrant,signaling Cascades alter synaptic,plasticity strong evidence supporting,the importance of second messenger,signaling has come from studying the,targets of mood-stabilizing drugs such,as lithium GSK 3 and IP 3 signaling,Cascades are known to mediate axon Oh,Genesis synaptogenesis neuronal growth,and cone spreading other downstream,effects may also be involved the,heritability of bipolar disorder is,around 80% monozygotic twins are,reported to have a higher incidence of,developing bipolar disorder,approximately 40% whereas the incidence,is only 10% in dizygotic twins although,the process of developing bipolar,disorder likely arises from complex,interactions between genes and,environmental factors the specific genes,that contribute to this risk are not,known with certainty variations of,several genes have been identified as,potential contributors to the,pathophysiology of bipolar disorder,among the identified genes are those,associated with serotonin signaling SLC,6a for T P h2 dopamine signaling SLC 6a,3 drd4,glutamate transmission Dao a DT NB p1,and cell maintenance and growth NRG one,BDNF di SC one the most significant,environmental triggers of mood episodes,among patients with bipolar disorder,include use of drugs with mood altering,properties changes in circadian rhythm,and life stressors successful management,of bipolar disorder requires particular,attention to minimizing the effects of,these influences

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